Acupuncture for Cystitis in Glasgow
Cystitis (inflammation of the bladder) is often due to a bacterial infection of the lower urinary tract. Each year, around 5% of women present to their GPs with typical symptoms of cystitis, such as pain when passing urine and urinary frequency, about half of whom are found to have a urinary tract infection (Hamilton-Miller 1994). The remaining women will have symptoms in the absence of bacterial infection, which is often referred to as interstitial cystitis or painful bladder syndrome (Rovner 2010). Typical symptoms of cystitis include pain when passing urine, and frequency and urgency of urination. Suprapubic pain, cloudy or foul-smelling urine, haematuria, or confusion (in older patients) may also occur.
Most urinary tract infections occur in women who are otherwise healthy; Escherichia coli is the cause of at least 70% of such uncomplicated urinary infections presenting in general practice (Gruneberg 1994). The key risk factors for uncomplicated infections include sexual intercourse, a personal or family history of urinary infection, and the use of a contraceptive diaphragm plus spermicide (DTB 1998). Recurrent cystitis is usually defined as three episodes of urinary tract infection in the previous 12 months, or two episodes in the previous 6 months. Around of half of all women who have an attack of cystitis will experience another within a year (Sen 2007).
Antibiotics such as trimethoprim are used in the treatment of cystitis due to a bacterial infection. General measures to treat urinary infection include drinking more to increase urinary output, and an analgesic or antipyretic for pain or fever. Oral treatments that alkalinise the urine are sometimes used to alleviate symptoms of cystitis (DTB 1998).
Sen A. Recurrent cystitis in non-pregnant women. BMJ Clinical Evidence. Search date April 2007
Grüneberg RN. Changes in urinary pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivities, 1971-1992. J Antimicrob Chemother 1994; 33 (suppl A): 1-8.
Hamilton-Miller JMT. The urethral syndrome and its management. J Antimicrob Chemother 1994; 33 (suppl A): 63- 73.
Managing urinary tract infection in women. DTB 1998; 36: 30-2.
Rovner ES et al, 2010. Interstitial cystitis. eMedicine [online]. Available: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/441831-overview [Accessed: 4th July 2010]
How acupuncture can help
There is little published clinical data on the effects of acupuncture for cystitis. Two controlled trials in Norway with positive results have indicated that acupuncture may be a worthwhile alternative in the prevention of frequently recurring cystitis in women (Aun 1998; Alraek 2002) (see Table overleaf)
Acupuncture may help in the treatment of cystitis by:
reducing inflammation, by promoting release of vascular and immunomodulatory factors (Kim 2008, Kavoussi 2007, Zijstra 2003);reducing pain and swelling (Lorenzini 2010)
improving bladder irritation by inhibition of capsaicin-sensitive C-fibre activation (Hino 2010).
About traditional acupuncture
Acupuncture is a tried and tested system of traditional medicine, which has been used in China and other eastern cultures for thousands of years to restore, promote and maintain good health. Its benefits are now widely acknowledged all over the world, and in the past decade traditional acupuncture has begun to feature more prominently in mainstream healthcare in the UK. In conjunction with needling, the practitioner may use techniques such as moxibustion, cupping, massage or electroacupuncture. They may also suggest dietary or lifestyle changes.
Traditional acupuncture takes a holistic approach to health and regards illness as a sign that the body is out of balance. The exact pattern and degree of imbalance is unique to each individual. The traditional acupuncturist’s skill lies in identifying the precise nature of the underlying disharmony and selecting the most effective treatment. The choice of acupuncture points will be specific to each patient’s needs. Traditional acupuncture can also be used as a preventive measure to strengthen the constitution and promote general wellbeing.
An increasing weight of evidence from Western scientific research (see overleaf) is demonstrating the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating a wide variety of conditions. From a biomedical viewpoint, acupuncture is believed to stimulate the nervous system, influencing the production of the body’s communication substances - hormones and neurotransmitters. The resulting biochemical changes activate the body's self-regulating homeostatic systems, stimulating its natural healing abilities and promoting physical and emotional wellbeing.